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Old 11-08-2006, 03:03 AM   #1
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What Is It? : About Respiratory Infections

Upper Respiratory Tract Infections can mean runny nose, runny eyes, sneezing and laboured breathing. If a bunnyis breathing through it's mouth, it's very ill and must get emergency medical treatment.Whilea human coldis caused by a virus, rabbit upper respiratory infections are caused by bacteria. The condition is commonly called "snuffles," which is a generic term covering these symptoms, not a disease itself.
Allergies, tooth root issues and other diseasescan also cause these symptoms.


Recommended Articles:
From Dana Krempels, Ph.D.

http://www.bio.miami.edu/hare/sneezing.html
Rabbits can suffer from infections of the upper respiratory tract (the sinuses and other parts of the tract that are not actually parts of the lungs), and this is usually manifested as runny nose, runny eyes and sneezing. Unlike a human cold, which is caused by a virus, rabbit upper respiratory infections are caused by bacteria. The condition is commonly called "snuffles.""Snuffles" is a non-specific, "catch-all" term used to describe such symptoms without naming the specific cause.. Until fairly recently, many veterinarians believed that "snuffles" was almost always caused by the bacterial pathogen Pasteurella multocida, commonly found in rabbits (though often without causing any problematic symptoms at all). More recent information suggests that many different species of bacteria can cause "snuffles." Some of the bacteria most commonly cultured from rabbit nasal discharge include Pseudomonasaeruginosa, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Staphylococcusaureus, though there are many others.

Because bacterial species (and their different strains) have characteristic sensitivity and resistance to various antibiotics, it is worth your investment to allow your veterinarian to positively identify the pathogen (i.e., disease-causing agent) your bunny has. The best way is via a CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY test. This laboratory test is the only way to determine (1) the species of bacteria causing the infection and (2) which rabbit-safe antibiotics will be most effective at killing them.

Veterinary Info:
MediRabbit: Upper Respiratory Tract Disease in Rabbit
http://www.medirabbit.com/EN/Respira...terial/URI.pdf

Rabbit Respiratory Disease (Heidi L. Hoefer, DVM, Dipl ABVP, Long Island Veterinary Specialists, Atlantic Veterinary Conference 2001)
http://www.vin.com/VINDBPub/SearchPB...00/PR00294.htm(Heidi L. Hoefer, DVM, Dipl ABVP)


Articles and Links
Listings in Rabbit References: Respiratory Problems
http://homepage.mac.com/mattocks/mor...refs.html#resp

Listings in Rabbit References: Bacteria
http://homepage.mac.com/mattocks/mor....html#bacteria

Culture and Sensitivity Testing For Bacterial Infections
http://www.ontariorabbits.org/health/healthinfo11.html

Upper Respiratory Tract Disease in Rabbits
http://www.medirabbit.com/EN/Respira...terial/URI.pdf

Differential Diagnosis for Respiratory Failure
http://www.medirabbit.com/EN/Respira...spira_diff.htm

Ammonia Intoxication in Rabbits
http://www.medirabbit.com/EN/Respira...onia_intox.pdf

Dyspnoea (Labored Breathing) in Rabbits
http://www.vetsforum.co.uk/article_dyspnoea_rabbit.htm
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Old 11-08-2006, 03:04 AM   #2
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    • Saline
    • An antibiotic (most often gentamicin, but amikacin, and injectableforms of other antibiotics, including Baytril, have also been used)
    • A bronchiodilator such as aminophylline
    • A medication that loosens mucus in the airways such as Mucomyst
      (Acetylcysteine)
If multiple ingredients are used, be sure you carefully follow the recipe to ensure that proportions are correct. Based on your rabbit's other medical conditions, your veterinarian may decide to use a completely different set of medications than those listed above or to not use certain ingredients. In most cases of bronchitis or pneumonia, Mucomyst and aminophylline are normally used together when nebulizing rabbits. Rabbits can be nebulized either using a mask or by placing them in a "nebulizing chamber." Your veterinarian may prefer one approach over the other - or your rabbit's personality may make one method considerably less stressful than the other.


A nebulizing chamber can be any enclosure that is relatively airtight (so the air in the "chamber" quickly becomes saturated and your rabbitis forced to breathe the medication), but still allows enough air in so he does not suffocate.

Some veterinarians feel your rabbit will get more medication in his system if he is "masked" during the treatment. Your veterinarian can order a mask like the ones s/he uses for anesthesia or some people have improvised with a kitchen funnel or the top half of a plastic pop bottle with the rough edges protected with vet wrap. If you do improvise, be sure the pop bottle is thoroughly washed and that all rough edges are adequately covered! It is important to thoroughly clean both the hose and the nebulizing chamber or mask (to prevent cross-contamination) if equipment is being used on more than one rabbit. If you borrow or rent the nebulizer, play it safe and don't assume the person who used it last cleaned it! You can clean the hose by soaking it in a 10% bleach solution. Rinse thoroughly after cleaning and allow it to dry. Use an antibacterial soap to clean the nebulizing chamber or mask - or consider having a separate one for each rabbit.


Nebulizing Murray

In the fall of 2002, Murray developed an upper respiratory infection. The primary
symptom was severe sneezing fits with little discharge. Dr. Allan did a deep nasal culture and started him on trimethoprim sulfa. The culture/sensitivity came back pseudomonas sensitive only to Baytril, amikacin, and gentamicin - the same bacteria that has plagued his ears for the last four years. Because of his heart condition and the other medications he is on, we decided to start with Baytril rather than amikacin. When there was little improvement after a week, I asked Dr. Allan if we should also consider nebulizing and she agreed. We considered substituting amikacin for gentamicin in the"standard recipe," until Dr. Allan found references in the Veterinary Drug Handbook stating that amikacin might be incompatible with aminophylline. Originally I gave Murray his treatments in the nebulizing chamber.

We decided to give treatments only once a day because the confining box was stressful for him, even though I sat next to him throughout the entire treatment. After two weeks of nebulizing combined with systemic treatment with Baytril, Murray stopped sneezing and we discontinued all medication.

Unfortunately, within a week of discontinuing medications the sneezing had returned. We restarted both the Baytril and the nebulizing treatments. This time Murray made it clear he did not like the nebulizing chamber - despite the fact that there was barely room to do so, he managed to turn around in the chamber so his butt was receiving the medication instead of his nose! We agreed that a mask would work better. Dr. Allan ordered one for me, and while we waited for it I continued the treatments without mask or chamber, holding the nebulizer's mouthpiece under his nose so he would breathe the medication.


It is difficult to say how much the nebulizing treatments helped Murray, although I do believe they contributed to his recovery. Ultimately, we ended up treating the infection with amikacin, the only antibiotic that has ever seemed to work against Murray's pseudomonas. Symptoms improved dramatically after only a few days of treatment with amikacin injections.

Kathy Smith

Nebulizing Ginger

At first we thought Ginger had a molar spur - he had a runny eye and wasn't eating well. He later began to sneeze. A vet appointment confirmed a molar spur, but testing showed that he also had a pasteurella infection. We tried various medications, injectable penicillin as well as oral medication (a sulfa drug and ciprofloxacin).There was some success, but we weren't kicking the "bug".

I had read great things about nebulizing to treat respiratory infections that don't respond to oral medications and wanted to try it. My vet had never tried nebulizing a mammal before but prescribed gentamicin and saline for us to use. When we began nebulizing Ginger, we did it twice a day for fifteen minutes, which is how long it takes for 1 cc of gentamicin, mixed with 5 cc of saline to work through the compressor.


We put Ginger in a small animal carry case, with the holes on the sides and front of the case taped up to help keep the vapor inside. We put the gentamicin/saline solution in a small container (inside the case), which is attached to the compressor by a tube. We enticed Ginger into the case with a carrot and some pellets, so he was occupied for 15 minutes. We closed the door and turned on the machine.


At first he didn't seem to like being in the carry case much at all. After the carrot was finished we would hear the case rattle and shake as he butted the door with his nose. When he came out, he would toss things out off the counter. These days Ginger is a little more relaxed. Now when we unlock the carry case door, a strong but controlled nose butt sends the carry case door flying open to reveal Ginger's head poking from a cloud of vapor, looking for all the world like a rockstar making a grand entrance through a cloud of dry ice! Not too long ago, after an afternoon session, he fell asleep in the carry case and had to be picked up from inside the case to be put back in his runspace, so I guess he's getting used to it.

We noticed an improvement with Ginger's condition after two and a half weeks of using the nebulizer. We have yet to determine whether Ginger just has a molar spur that bugs him every five months or so, or if he still has pasteurella or even a mild root problem that causes him some discomfort once in a while. Now we only nebulize him as needed.


We were lucky enough to get our nebulizer from a couple whose baby had asthma, but no longer needed to be given medication this way. If I were looking for another one, I would look around for a good used one. The tubing is disposable and can be purchased from a medical supply store and it's easy to ensure that the permanent parts are clean with rubbing alcohol before use.

The optimum size vapor droplet for nebulizing is about 1 to 3 microns. At this size, the bubble or particle has a better chance of penetrating the membrane wall and delivering the medication straight to its target. Utrasonic nebulizers at the top dollar range deliver about 90% of droplets at this ideal range size. Jet nebulizers, which are a little more economical, produce about 55% in this range.

Shannon Clark/John Pitts

Where to obtain the equipment

Purchasing a new nebulizer will cost approximately $200.00. Some medical supply companies such as Medigasand VitalAirewill rent nebulizers for $25.00-30.00 per month and have retail locations throughout the province. No prescription is required to purchase or rent a nebulizer.

Companies such as Avida Healthwear and Global Drugs sell masks, kits and other nebulizing accessories on-line.

Visit http://www.showcatsonline.com/build nebulizer.html (members only) to learn how to build a home-made nebulizing chamber.

When looking for used equipment start by talking to healthcare professionals. However, if you need to start using a nebulizer immediately you may not have to time locate a used unit. If you would like more information about nebulizing please contact us.


Special thanks to Kathy Smith, Dr. Allan.



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Old 11-13-2006, 08:57 PM   #3
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Here's another great site that explains how to build your own chamber for nebulizing. This one is made for guinea pigs, but will work just the same for rabbits.



http://home.houston.rr.com/lundquist.../Nebulizer.htm
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Old 09-28-2007, 07:50 PM   #4
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Because I am a breeder with a large number of bunnies, I've decided I need to make this nebulizer box.

I decided to go on Ebay.com and find a nebulizer and this is what I've found:

http://www.pari.com/pdd/ultra2.htm



Here is the description from the auction:

PARI PRONEB Ultra Compressor Nebulizer System, Used only for 5 days.



Used in a smoke-free, pet-free environment. Condition is excellent. Compressor and primary Nebulizer have been lightly used, about 5 days. I had to buy this in July of 2005 for my daughter who was 5 months at the time. She had to use it just a few times. The mask she used, I have discarded. Every other mouth attachment in the kit has not been used. The warranty is good for 5 years. So, I am assuming if you send in the warranty card it will be effective until July of 2010. I think this should be used by someone who needs it, rather than in storage.



Introducing the new PRONEB ULTRA compressor. This high output compressor can shorten the treatment time while delivering more medication to the patient's lungs. When combined with the PARI LC PLUS or PARI LC STAR Reusable Nebulizer, the particle size of medications are optimized for inhalation and retention into the lungs. With less medication wasted, the patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis and COPD feel better faster and can be more compliant.



The PRONEB Ultra compressor at 4 lbs, is one of the smallest and lightest compressors available. A powerful motor means treatment times of 6–7.5 min (dependent upon Nebulizer model). Included is the LC Plus Reusable Nebulizer for fast aerosol treatments, optimal particle size and minimal medication waste. The modern design features a built-in nebulizer holder, an integrated handle and an easy-change filter that lasts up to 500 hours.



Designed for children as well as adults, the PARI LC PLUS® Nebulizer uses 2 valves to maximize aerosol delivery and minimize medication wastage.

* Fast treatments, 7-8.5 minutes (dependant upon nebulizer model)
* Reusable nebulizer
* Dishwasher safe, boilable
* Latex-free

Features and Benefits:

* Twice the medication delivery in half the time, compared to other compressor nebulizer systems
* Molded handle for convenient carrying
* Highly effective PARI LC Plus Nebulizer reduces treatment times and medication wastage
* Convenient nebulizer holder
* Easy-to-change air filter
* Simple on/off operation
* Easy-to-install and remove tubing
* Operates on 120 VAC @ 60Hz using only 1.6A and 98W power

Dimensions and Weight:

* Size: 5.75" x 7.5" x 5.5"
* Weight: 4 lbs.

This auction includes:

* Gray PRONEB® ULTRA compressor model 85B0007 in original OEM box.
* Brand New/Never Used Black carrying case for the compressor.
* Fast and efficient PARI LC PLUS® Reusable Nebulizer #22B8130-WG (#22F81) with wing tip tubing and mouthpiece
* NEW Pari Baby Conversion Kit Size 2 #44F2402(factory sealed package)
* Demonstration on how to use the PRONEB ULTRA via a VHS tape.(factory sealed)
* 7 feet air tubing
* OEM Printed documents;
o PARI Compressor Nebulizer System operation
o LC Plus Nebulizer Instructions
o PARI Baby Reusable Nebulizer Instructions
o PARI Catalog
o PARI Warranty Activation Card

All used Nebulizer components have been recently inspected and cleaned, sterilized and stored into a sealed bag.

More info at the PARI website;

http://www.pari.com/home/pari-products.htm product line, company info

http://www.pari.com/videos/ultra2-video.htm demonstration video on how compressor & nebulizer work

http://www.pari.com/pdd/jet-neb-tech.htm nebulizer design features and technology






I'm paying $24.95 for it plus shipping and I think that is a pretty good price.


I'm sharing this because I wanted folks to know that it is possible to make an affordable nebulizer box for your animals if you need to. I'm sure there are other brands out there too - this just happened to be the one I liked the most. But I was thinking I'd have to pay a lot more - so I'm really happy I found this one!


Peg


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Old 09-29-2007, 08:07 PM   #5
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Its also good to note a lot of pharmacies (especially family owned local ones) will rent out a nebulizer to you for a small fee. I did this until the one I ordered off ebay came in the mail.

I also paid about 20.00 for one on ebay and it works great!

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Old 09-22-2011, 02:57 AM   #6
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